Medical University of Bialystok. semester I.
  • Updated 02.10.2023 by Zakład Histologii i Embriologii

    semester I



    1-year course; I-semester 2023/2024



    I. Seminar (online): Microscope, histological technique. (see “Detailed draft of classes, (02.10;  04.10;  5.10.2023).


    II. Seminar (online): Cell structure and various cell types. (09.10;  11.10;  12.10. 2023).

    Slide no 1. Cells of epithelium from oral cavity - H+E

    Slide no 10. Slide no 2. Nerve cells (spinal cord gray matter).- H+E staining (Hematoxylin and Eosin).

    Slide no 103. Egg cell ( ovary) - H+E

    Slide no 4. Carbohydrate deutoplasm (deuteroplasm) – section of the liver, showing intracellular deposits of glycogen. The glycogen appears as fine or coarse dark-carmine granules. - Best’s Carmine stain.

    Slide no 5. Lipids deutoplasm – section of the unilocular (yellow or white) adipose tissue. The fat is stained black with osmic acid in the adipose cells cytplasm. - Osmic acid stain.

    Slide no 6. Lipids lixiviated deutoplasm.- H+E

    Slide no 7. Melanocytes ( cells from fish epidermis) – not stained

    Slide no 8. The Golgi complex occupies a characteristic apolarized position in the cytoplasm by nerve cells (pseudounipolar neurons). The sensory ganglion (the posterior root ganglion of spinal nerve)– nerve cells impregnated with silver nitrate. - Silver stain


    III. Practical class: Epithelial tissue. Simple epithelium. (16.10;  18.10;  19.10. 2023).

    Slide no 10. Simple squamous epithelium - H+E

    Slide no 11. Simple squamous epithelium, - Sliver stain.

    Slide no 12. Simple(one layer) cuboidal epithelium from kidney collecting tubules. - Azan stain.

    Slide no 13. Simple columnar epithelium that covers the internal surface of a small intestinum.- H+E stain.

    Slide no 14. Pseudostratified (pseudo two-layer)columnar epithelium that covers the internal surface of the ductus epidimidis. This epithelium is composed of rounded basal and long columnar calls. The epithelium surface is covered by long, branched microvilli called stereocilia. - H+E stain.

    Slide no 15. or 36. Pseudostratified columnar ciliated epithelium (respiratory tracts epithelium) in the trachea. - H+E stain.


    IV. Practical class: Stratified epithelium. Principal types of exocrine glands. (23.10;  25.10;  26.10. 2023).

    Slide no 89. Nonkeratinized stratified squamous epithelium in the esophagus. – H+E.

    Slide no 101. Stratified transitional epithelium in the urinary bladder. - Azan stain.

    Slide no 116. Stratified squamous keratinized epithelium of thick skin. Epidermis. - H+E stain.

    Slide no 58. Serous gland ( parotid gland) - Azan stain.

    Slide no 95. Mucous gland ( large intestine) - H+E

    Slide no 20. Unicellular, intraepithelial exocrine glands. Goblet cells of the intestines. These cells are secreting mucous to the extracellular space. - Azan stain.


    V. Practical class: Blood cells. (06.11;  08.11;  09.11. 2023).

    Slide no 21. Frog’s blood. A demonstrational histological specimen. - Pappenhaim’s method stain.

    Slide no 22. Human blood. - Pappenhaim’s method stain.

    Slide no 23. Reticulocytes – young erythrocytes may have a few cytoplasmic granules and netlike structure. - Cresol blue stain.

    Review of histological specimens from II, III, IV and V classes. – slides revision


    VI. Practical part of partial test I: histological technique, cell structure, epithelial tissue, and blood. (13.10;  15.11; 16.11. 2023).

    Theoretical part  13.11. 2022   at 11.30-12.15   Lecture room


    VII. Practical class: Proper connective tissue. (20.11; 22.11; 23.11. 2023).

    Slide no 24. Mucous tissue ( Wharton’s jelly), umbilical cord. - Azan stain.

    Slide no 68. Reticular connective tissue (lymph node), - H+E.

    Slide no 27. Reticular connective tissue. Reticular fibers in the medulla and cortecs of a lymph node (or in the white pulp of spleen). The reticular fibers are seen as a network of dark, thin, wavy fibers. Silver stain.

    Slide no 28. Loose connective tissue – elastic fibers. Total preparation (this is a whole mount specimen of rat mesentery; the mesentery is lying on the slide) showing blue fuchsin-stained (or eosin-stained) no anastomosing bundles of collagen fibers; while the elastic fibers appear as thin, brown-black, branching (dark anastomosing) resorcin-stained filaments. Collagen bundles of various thicknesses are observed. Fuchsin (or eosin) + resorcin stain.

    Slide no 29. Loose connective tissue ( elastic and collagen fibers) - Orcein and resorcin-fuchsin, aniline blue)

    Slide no 30. Fibroblasts and acidophilic cells of connective tissue, H+E

    Slide no 6. and 33. Lipids “lixiviated” deutoplasm – section of the unilocular (yellow or white) adipose tissue. Fat has been dissolved out of the section during the preparation of the slide, shoving large, empty spaces in the adipose cell cytoplasm. H+E stain.

    Slide no 34. Longitudinal section of dense regular connective tissue from a collagen tendon. Thick bundles of parallel collagen fibers fill the intercellular spaces between fibroblasts. H+E stain.

    Slide no 35. Longitudinal section of dense regular elastic tissue from an elastic. - Van Gieson’s method stain.


    VIII. Practical class: Structure of bone and cartilage. (27.11; 29.11; 30.11. 2023).

    Slide no 36. Hyaline cartilage. Section of trachea. Chondrocytes are located in matrix lacunae. The cartilage interstitial growth is reflected by the chondrocyte pairs and clusters that are responsible for the formation of isogenous groups. The intense hematoxylin-staining of the matrix around each chondrocytes is visible. H+E stain. The more darkly stained area is a zone of the cartilage matrix that is rich in glycosoaminoglycans. - H+E stain.

    Slide no 37. Elastic cartilage from the auricle of the ear. Elastic fibers is orcein in brown, or resorcin in red stained. Orcein or resorcin stain.

    Slide no 38. Cancellous (spongy) bone. Areas with numerous trabecule of bone and interconnecting cavities – corresponding to cancellous bone (it is internal structure of bones). The outher portion of the bone has a solid structure and represents compact (dense) bone.

    Slide no 39. Structure of compact bone, both transverse and longitudinal sections (two fragments of compact bone). The Haversian systems are visible, as are the osteocytes in their lacunae. Decalcified compact bone.


    IX. Practical class: Structure of muscle tissue. (04.12; 06.12; 07.12. 2023).

    Slide no 41. Isolated muscle cells

    Slide no 42. Skeletal muscle fibers – longitudinal and cross section (tongue), - H+E

    Slide no 43 or 94. Smooth muscle – transverse (cross) section and longitudinal section. - H+E stain.

    Slide no 44. Skeletal muscle – cross section and longitudinal section of transversal striated skeletal muscle (tounge), showing many muscle fibers with peripherally located nuclei. - Silver stain.

    Slide no 45. Longitudinal and transverse section of cardiac muscle, showing numerous muscle fibers with centrally placed nuclei. - H+E stain.


    X. Practical class: Nerve tissue and glial cells and nerve system. (11.12; 13.12; 14.12. 2023).

    Slide no. 47. Dorsal root ganglion (spinal ganglion) =sensory ganglion. The sensory ganglion comprise large neuronal cell bodies (pseudounipolar neurons), which are surrounded by abundant small satellite cells. H+E stain. Nerve fibers passing to the center of the ganglion, the ganglion cells being located peripherally, each cell body is seen to be surrounded by a layer of flattened satellite cells. Satellite cells are represented by the very small nuclei at the periphery of the neuronal cell bodies.- H+E stain.

    Slide no. 8. Silver-impregnated dorsal rot ganglion.
    Slide no. 119. Cerebrum – cerebral cortex (gray mater) – has 6 layers of nerve cells. Pyramidal cells are typical of the cerebral cortex. H+E stain.
    Slide no. 120. Cerebellum – cerebellar cortex: molecular layer + Purkinje cell layer + granular layer. Purkinje cells are typical of the cerebellar cortex. - H+E stain.
    Unnumberd slide. - Silver impregnated cerebellum. Draw the Purkinje cell Demonstrational slide.
    Slide no. 2 or 123. Spinal cord. Draw the following: a) gray matter and white matter in the diagram, b) motor neurons with their basophilic bodies (Nissl bodies). Toluidine blue stain.

    Slide no 52. Isolated nerve fiber (peripheral nerve), longitudinal section – impregnated with OsO4 . (osmic acid stain).

    Slideno 53. Nerve fibers (peripheral nerve), cross section – impregnated with OsO4 . (osmic acid stain).


    XI. Practical part of partial test II: Proper connective tissue, Structure of bone and cartilage, Structure of muscle tissue, Nerve tissue and glial cells and nerve system (18.12; 20.12; 21.12.2023).

    Theoretical part 18.12. 2022   at 11.30-12.15   Lecture room


    XII. I Seminar online- General Embryology (to be agreed.01.;  to be agreed.01;  04.01.2024)

    XIII. II Seminar online- General Embryology (to be agreed.01.;  10.01;  11.01.2024)

    XIV. III Seminar online -(15.01. ;  17.01;  18.01.2024)


    XV. Partial test III - Embryology  22.01.2024   at 11.30-12.15