Medical University of Bialystok. Classes and Lectures.
  • Updated 01.03.2024 by Zakład Medycyny Sądowej

    Classes and Lectures




    The topic of the classes depends on the type of postmortem examination performed each day.    


    1. Thanatology: definition of death, cause and manner of death, interletal reactions. Signs of death. Changes due to resuscitation. Decomposition and other variants of postmortem changes. Inspection of the site where the body was found. Forensic autopsy. Special autopsy techniques. Sample preparation for analysis. Identification of unknown bones and disintegrated bodies. Sudden deaths due to natural disease.

    2. Results of mechanical trauma: antemortem and postmortem injuries. Wounds due to blunt trauma- bruises, abrasions, contused, lacerated, and bite wounds. Trauma to the skull and brain: skull fractures, intracranial hemorrhages, cerebral concussion, brain contusion. Spine injuries. Face and neck injuries. Injuries of the trunk, abdomen, and extremities. Slashed wounds, incised wounds, stab wounds. Identification of weapons. 

    3. Firearms. Gunshot wounds.

    4. Asphyxia: suffocation, gagging, overlaying, choking, drowning, strangulation, hanging.

    5. Electrocution, lightning stroke. Deaths due to fire. The effects of heat and cold: hyperthermia and hypothermia.

    6. Infanticide: forensic examination of mother, infant's autopsy. Pregnancy, childbirth, and abortion from the forensic point of view. Sex-related issues - sexual offense. Sexual deviance. Rape. Rape-homicides.

    7. Criminal forensic expertise: forensic examination, protocol preparation, and forensic opinion. Art. 156, art. 157, art. 217 of the Polish penal code. Forensic civil expertise: health definition, health consequences of road accidents, ability to work and earn, indemnity for pain, treatment costs. Jurisdiction issues in insurance cases.

    8 Affiliation of paternity. DNA polymorphism analysis. Methods of DNA isolation. PCR techniques. Identification of biological material and analysis of liquid blood, bloodstains, sperm, saliva, body excretions, hairs, tissue material, and others.

    9. Forensic toxicology. General facts about poisons. Collection of tissue for analysis. Ethanol toxicology, studies on ethanol metabolism and elimination, criminogenic implications of alcoholism. Carbon monoxide, methanol, glycol poisoning. Detection of poisons in biological material. Drug addiction.



    1. Legal basis for the activities of experts. The role of forensic medicine

    2. Death - legal conditions

    3. Medico-legal autopsy, part 1

    4. Medico-legal autopsy, part 2

    5. Dealing with victims of violence




    Lecture Topics:

    1. Medical documentation - guidelines and practical aspects 
    2. Problematic patient-selected issues. Vol. I
    3. Problematic patient-selected issues. Vol. II
    4. Medical malepractice 

    Seminar topics:

    1. Ethical aspects of the doctor-patient relationship, part I

    2. Ethical aspects of the doctor-patient relationship, part II

    3. Medical confidentiality

    4. Legal basis for maintaining and sharing medical records

    5. Ethical aspects of transplantology

    6. Ethical aspects of palliative treatment

    7. Ethical aspects of the end of life

    8. Euthanasia

    9. Basics of medical experiment

    10. Analysis of test questions and assessment