The history of the Medical University of Bialystok is a continuation of the 18th century tradition of practising medicine and public health care in Bialystok. At that time, a palace midwifery school was functioning in Bialystok, and it was later transformed into an Institute of Obstetrics (one of only a few in the entire country) - established by Dr. Jakub Michelis in the 19th century.Within the Institute, there was a clinic functioning as a health center and a teaching facility.
The university was officially founded in 1950 as the tenth Doctors Academy in Poland and it was soon renamed Medical Academy. Branicki Palace became the main seat of the newly established institution. The first Rector of the Medical Academy of Bialystok, Tadeusz Kielanowski, was a member of the Lviv community. Many among the academic teachers were pre-war professors and graduates of universities in Vilnius, Cracow, Poznan, Warsaw and Lublin.
168 students began their studies at the Faculty of Medicine. The majority of theoretical departments were located in the a building adjacent to the palace, now Collegium Primum, formerly Teachers Training College. The buildings that were granted to the university were destroyed in 1944 and their reconstruction began after the war. When the Medical Academy was founded, even the professors and students helped rebuild and renovate the damaged buildings. Hospitals that were at that time in operation in Bialystok and which survived the war became the clinical base of the new university.
In 1951, the university obtained the right to confer the Doctor of Medical Sciences degree. In 1955, first students graduated from the Faculty of Medicine and were awarded the titles of Medical Doctor. In the same year, the first issue of a scientific journal Roczniki Akademii Medycznej w Białymstoku was published and it continues to be published under a changed title Advances in Medical Sciences.